Field Drydown of Mature Corn Grain
R.L. (Bob) Nielsen
Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ.
West Lafayette, IN 47907-2054
Email address: rnielsen
- Weather conditions strongly influence in-field grain drydown.
- Plant characteristics can also influence in-field grain drydown.
- Early grain maturation usually means faster in-field grain drydown.
- Later grain maturation usually means slower in-field grain drydown.
he rate of field drydown of corn grain and the resulting grain moisture content at harvest obviously influences growers' cost of artificially drying the grain after harvest. An early drydown of the crop also facilitates early or at least timely harvest of the crop prior to the colder and, often, wetter conditions of late fall.
Kernel moisture content decreases as the kernel develops through the blister stage (~ 85% moisture), milk stage (~ 80% moisture), dough stage (~ 70% moisture), dent stage (~ 55% moisture), and finally physiological maturity (~ 30% moisture). Prior to physiological maturity, decreases in kernel moisture occur from a combination of actual water loss (evaporation) from the kernel plus the continued accumulation of kernel dry matter via the grain filling process. After physiological maturity (identified by presence of the kernel black layer), percent kernel moisture continues to decrease primarily due to water loss from the kernel.
Weather & Timing of Grain Maturation
Grain moisture loss in the field occurs at a fairly linear rate within a range of grain moisture content from about 40 percent down to 15 to 20 percent, and then tapers off to little or no additional moisture loss after that. The exact rate of field drying varies among hybrids and years. Figure 1 illustrates changes in grain moisture content over time for an adapted medium maturity hybrid in two years with different temperature patterns following physiological maturity.
Click on an image to open a larger version. To close the popup window, click on the larger image.
Fig. 1. Example of field drying progress of a mid-maturity
corn hybrid in 2 years with different temperature patterns.
Fig. 2. Average daily grain moisture loss
(percentage points/day) relative to average daily air
temperature during the drydown period for three corn
hybrids planted late April to early May, 1991-1994,
Fig. 3. Relationship between field drying rate and the
date at which the grain nears maturity (half-milkline)
for three corn hybrids planted late April to early May,
1991-1994, westcentral Indiana.
Field drying of mature corn grain is influenced primarily by weather factors, especially temperature and humidity/rainfall. Simply put, warmer temperatures and lower humidity encourage rapid field drying of corn grain. Figure 2 illustrates the relationship between the average daily temperature over the entire drydown period and the average daily rate of field drying over the entire drydown period.
Because grain drydown rates are greater when the drydown period is warmer, it stands to reason that a corn crop that matures in late August will dry down faster than one that matures in mid-September. In fact, there is a close relationship between the date when the grain nears physiological maturity (half-milkline or 2 to 3 weeks prior to kernel blacklayer) and the subsequent average daily drydown rate. Average daily drydown rates will range from about 0.8 percentage point per day for grain that nears maturity in late August to about 0.4 percentage point per day for grain that nears maturity in mid- to late September (Fig 3).
Bear in mind that grain moisture loss for any particular day may be quite high or low depending on the exact temperature, humidity, sunshine, or rain conditions that day. It is not unheard of for grain moisture to decline more than one percentage point per day for a period of days when conditions are warm, sunny, windy and dry. In contrast, there may be zero drydown on cool, cloudy, rainy days.
Weather-Related Crop Stress and Field Drydown of Grain
Folks often question whether field drydown will occur "normally" when weather-related stress damages the crop prior to physiological maturity or causes premature death of the plants. Examples of such weather stress include that due to severe drought plus heat, severe damage by hail, and frost or killing freeze events prior to physiological maturity.
The answer in all cases is essentially "yes", but this requires a bit of explanation.
A lingering stress such as drought or foliar disease (e.g., gray leaf spot) that occurs during the latter stages of the grain filling period typically causes premature death of the plants, smaller kernels, AND premature formation of kernel black layer. The latter two factors usually result in earlier drydown of the grain to the extent that grain moisture content in severely affected areas of a field is usually drier at harvest than lesser affected areas. The fact that grain drydown of the "prematurely mature" grain begins earlier usually means it occurs in relatively warmer time periods and so grain drydown rates per day are higher than would be expected if the grain had matured "normally" at a later date. However, the rate of grain drydown is "normal" for the time period in which the grain is drying.
The effects of a sudden single stress event like hail or lethal cold temperatures prior to physiological maturity often create an optical illusion of sorts. Because leaf or plant death of an immature crop may occur quite rapidly in response to severe hail damage or lethal frost / freeze events, the moisture content of the yet immature grain will "appear" to be quite high given that the appearance of the now dead plants would seem to suggest the crop was "mature". In fact, subsequent field drydown of the affected grain will occur fairly normally relative to their immature stage of development (Hicks, 2004). The appearance of the dead plants gives the illusion that drydown was slowed by the damage from the hail or frost/freeze.
Corny Trivia: Grain in fields severely damaged or killed by severe stresses during the grain filling period will always reach physiological maturity (kernel black layer). The significant reduction or complete cessation of photosynthate availability due to damaged or dead plants will eventually lead to the death and collapse of the placental tissue at the tips of kernels that develops into the so-called "black layer."
Hybrid Variability for Field Drydown
Hybrid variability for the rate of grain moisture loss during post-maturity drydown and the eventual grain moisture content at harvest are of great interest to grower and seed industry alike. Growers desire hybrids with superior yielding ability (maximum gross income) that also dry very quickly in the fall (minimum drying or grain shrinkage costs).
The seed industry uses grain moisture content data to assign relative hybrid maturity ratings on the basis of relative moisture differences among hybrids at harvest (Nielsen, 2011). Two hybrids that differ by one "day" of relative maturity will typically vary by about one half percentage point of grain moisture content (an average daily loss of moisture) if planted and harvested on the same days. Recognize that relative hybrid maturity ratings are most consistent within, not among, seed companies.
When weather conditions are great for rapid grain drydown, hybrids tend to dry at fairly similar rates. When weather conditions are not favorable for rapid drydown, then hybrid characteristics that influence the rate of grain drying become more important.
Researchers have identified the following traits or characteristics as ones most likely to influence grain drying in the field. The relative importance of each trait varies throughout the duration of the field drydown process and, as mentioned earlier, is most influential when weather conditions are not conducive for rapid grain drying.
- Kernel Pericarp Characteristics. The pericarp is the outermost layer of a corn kernel (botanically; the ovary wall). Thinner or simply more permeable pericarp layers have been associated with faster drying rates in the field.
- Husk Leaf Number. The fewer the number of husk leaves, the more rapid the grain moisture loss. In fact, modern hybrids have fewer husk leaves than those commonly grown years ago.
- Husk Leaf Thickness. The thinner the husk leaves, the more rapid the grain moisture loss.
- Husk Leaf Senescence. The sooner the husk leaves senesce (die), the more rapid the grain moisture loss.
- Husk Coverage of the Ear. The less the husk covers the tip of the ear, the more rapid the grain moisture loss.
- Husk Tightness. The looser the husk covers the ear, the more rapid the grain moisture loss.
- Ear Declination. The sooner the ears drop from an upright position after grain maturation to a downward position, the more rapid the grain moisture loss. In particular, husks of upright ears can "capture" rainfall.
Final Trivia For Coffeeshop Conversations
Interestingly, there is little, if any, documented evidence that moisture loss occurs through the pedicel (kernel connection to the cob) of the kernel through the cob tissue. Post-maturity grain moisture loss occurs primarily by evaporative loss from the kernel itself. Research many years ago established that post-maturity moisture loss through the kernel connective tissues (placental tissues) back to the cob is essentially non-existent (Kiesselbach and Walker, 1952; Crane et al., 1959). As those tissues cease to function (associated with the onset of kernel black layer and physiological maturity), the moisture and nutritional connection between kernel and cob is essentially broken.
Cavalieri, A.J. and O.S. Smith. 1985. Grain Filling and Field Drying of a Set of Maize Hybrids Released From 1930 to 1982. Crop Sci. 25:856-860.
Crane, P.L., S.R. Miles, and J.E. Newman. 1959. Factors Associated With Varietal Differences in Rate of Field Drying in Corn. Agron. J. 51:318-320.
Hicks, D.R. 2004. The Corn Crop – Frost and Maturity. Minnesota Crop News, Univ of Minnesota Extension. [online]. http://www.extension.umn.edu/cropenews/2004/04MNCN28.htm [URL accessed Sep 2011].
Kiesselbach, T. A. and Elda R. Walker. 1952. Structure of Certain Specialized Tissue in the Kernel of Corn. Am J Bot 39:561-69
Nielsen, R.L. (Bob). 2008. Grain Fill Stages in Corn. Corny News Network, Purdue Univ. [online] http://www.kingcorn.org/news/timeless/GrainFill.html [URL accessed Sep 2011].
Nielsen, R.L. (Bob). 2011. Interpreting Corn Hybrid Maturity Ratings. Corny News Network, Purdue Univ. [online] http://www.kingcorn.org/news/timeless/HybridMaturity.html [URL accessed Sep 2011].
Troyer, A.F. and W.B. Ambrose. 1971. Plant Characteristics Affecting Field Drying Rate of Ear Corn. Crop Sci. 11:529-531.