PERFORMANCE OF ORCHARDGRASS AND TALL FESCUE IN INDIANA, 1994-1996
|Tall Fescue data|
|Variety and marketer information|
This bulletin summarizes the results of 1994 - 1996 yield performance tests of orchardgrass and tall fescue in Indiana. This information, protected by copyright by the Purdue Research Foundation, is presented under authority granted the Purdue Agricultural Research Programs to conduct performance trials, including interpretation of the data to the public, and does not imply endorsement or recommendation by Purdue University. Permission is granted to reproduce the tables only in their entirety provided the source is referenced and the data are not rearranged, manipulated, or reinterpreted. A conspicuous disclaimer which states "endorsement or recommendation by Purdue University is not implied" must accompany any information reproduced.
Additional copies of this publication are available to Indiana residents from their local Purdue Cooperative Extension Offices or by writing:Media Distribution Center
301 South 2nd Street
Lafayette, IN 47905-1092
This document can also be accessed electronically by sending email to email@example.com and in the body of the message type:
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The 1994 - 1996 Growing Season
Precipitation and temperature were favorable for the production of cool-season grasses in 1994. Three harvests of both grasses were taken. The studies were in excellent condition going into the fall.
The 1995 growing season was variable. Early season rain in 1995 resulted in excellent first harvest yields. Lack of mid-summer moisture and excessive heat limited grass growth. Orchardgrass regrowth following the second harvest was infected with anthracnose and flea beetle feeding was also diagnosed; these stresses prevented a third harvest from being taken. Tall fescue withstood the drought better and no anthracnose or flea beetle feeding was evident; therefore, a third harvest of tall fescue was taken. Both studies entered the winter in good condition.
Cool and moist conditions in the spring of 1996 made favorable weather for cool-season grass growth and delayed first harvest. Dry weather and cool temperatures toward the end of the summer resulted in low third harvest yields for both grasses.
Participating seed companies selected entries to be tested. Seed was sent to Purdue University for planting and evaluation.
Best management practices were administered to all studies. Optimum pH and fertility were provided and maintained. Hand weeding and herbicides were used as necessary to accomplish weed control. A flail-type forage harvester was used to harvest the plots. Hand samples were utilized for dry matter determination.
No yield data was taken in the establishment year of 1993; three harvests were removed in 1994.
Presentation and Interpretation of Results
Yields are reported as dry matter yield in tons per acre (T/A). Tables 1 and 2 summarize results of 1994 - 1996 yield trials conducted at West Lafayette. Table 3 describes primary growth stages referenced in Table 1 and 2.
In each table, varieties are listed in order of total yield to date. Within a column, varieties differing from each other by less than the respective LSD (least significant difference) were not significantly (probability > 0.05) different. Yields followed by an asterisk (*) are not significantly different from the highest value in the column.
The CV (coefficient of variability) is the ratio of the standard deviation to the grand mean. It is used as a measure of the precision of the experiment. Lower CV indicates lower experimental error in the trial.
Number of harvests within a year is listed at the bottom of each yield column.
Table 4 contains a listing of commercially available entries, along with marketer, address, phone number, and contact person as provided by the entrant company.
How to Use Performance Information
Information presented in the bulletin should be useful in selecting cool-season grass seed for forage production in Indiana. When selecting an orchardgrass variety, a decision needs to be made if the seeding will be a pure stand or include a legume. We would suggest, based on observations from this study, that Potomac is too early in maturity to be a good variety to choose when a grass-legume mixture is desired. Jay and Shawnee conversely, head after legumes begin to flower and a sacrifice in dry matter yield of the mixture may result.
In past years, tall fescue has had a poor reputation due to the presence of an endophytic fungus that results in less than desirable animal performance. Publications about the endophytic fungus and the problems that may be encountered can be obtained from your local Purdue Cooperative Extension Service Office or from the Media Distribution Center. Release of tall fescue varieties that are low-endophyte (certified to be less than 5 % infection) have improved animal performance expectations from tall fescue. Early releases of low-endophyte varieties were criticized for being low in vigor and yield ( e.g. Johnstone). This study indicates that yield does not have to be sacrificed with the selection of low-endophyte varieties. Stargrazer, a low-endophyte variety, and infected Kentucky 31 had similar yield when data for the three years were statistically analyzed.
Table 1. 1994-1996 orchardgrass variety yields at the Agronomy Research Center, West Lafayette, IN Seeding date: May 8, 1993; no data reported in 1993. ========================================================================== Maturity stage Dry Matter Yield (T/A) at first harvest Entry 1994 1995 1996 94-96 5/27/94 5/31/95 6/05/96 -------------------------------------------------------------------------- Warrior 6.48 * 5.41 * 6.74 * 18.63 * R3.25 R2.5 R2.5 Haymate 6.33 * 5.47 * 6.73 * 18.53 * R2.5 R2 R1.75 OG 90132 6.30 * 5.25 * 6.47 * 18.02 * R2.75 R1.75 R1.5 Condor 6.36 * 5.36 * 6.16 * 17.89 * R2.25 R1.75 R1.75 Potomac 6.43 * 5.02 * 6.42 * 17.87 * R4 R4 R4 DS8 5.70 5.09 * 6.78 * 17.58 * R2 R1.5 R1.5 Elsie 5.64 5.01 * 5.85 * 16.50 R2.5 R2 R2 Jay 5.24 4.60 6.66 * 16.49 E3.75 E3.75 E3.75 Shawnee 5.03 4.43 6.04 * 15.51 R1 R1 R1 ---- ---- ---- ----- Grand mean 5.95 5.07 6.43 17.45 LSD (5%) 0.62 0.61 0.94 1.40 C.V. (%) 7.17 8.29 9.98 5.48 No. of harvests 3 2 3 8 ========================================================================= Yields followed by an asterisk (*) are not significantly different from the highest yield in the column. Location: West Lafayette, IN Design: Randomized block, 4 replications, 9 entries Soil Type: Chalmers silt loam Plots: Five rows, 2.5' x 20', (harvested 2.5' x 15') Seeded: May 8, 1993, with 10 lb. live seed / acre. Fertilizer: 100, 50 and 50 lb. of N / acre applied in March and after the 1st and 2nd harvests, respectively; 60 lb. P2O5 and 250 lb. K2O / acre applied after first harvest. (Copyright 1996 Purdue Research Foundation)
Table 2. 1994-1996 tall fescue variety yields at the Agronomy Research Center, West Lafayette, IN Seeding date: May 8, 1993; no data reported in 1993. =================================================== Dry Matter Yield (T/A) Entry 1994 1995 1996 94-96 --------------------------------------------------- Stargrazer 8.14 * 8.98 * 8.16 * 25.27 * Kentucky 31-I 7.86 * 8.93 * 7.65 * 24.44 * FTF 8873 7.23 8.68 * 7.59 * 23.51 Kentucky 31-NI 7.60 * 8.29 7.33 * 23.22 Maximize 6.71 8.39 * 7.65 * 22.74 Johnstone 6.26 7.78 6.66 20.69 ---- ---- ---- ----- Grand mean 7.30 8.51 7.51 23.31 LSD (5%) 0.57 0.68 1.02 1.66 C.V. (%) 5.20 5.28 8.99 4.72 No. of harvests 3 3 3 9 ================================================== Maturity at first harvest: All entries approximately R2 (see Table 3). Yields followed by an asterisk (*) are not significantly different from the highest yield in the column. "Kentucky 31-I" used as an endophyte infected comparison (refer to AY-275 for more information). Location: West Lafayette, IN Design: Randomized block, 4 replications, 6 entries Soil Type: Chalmers silt loam Plots: Five rows, 2.5' x 20', (harvested 2.5' x 15') Seeded: May 8, 1993, with 15 lb. live seed / acre. Fertilizer: 100, 50 and 50 lb. of N / acre applied in March and after the 1st and 2nd harvests, respectively; 60 lb. P2O5 and 250 lb. K2O / acre applied after first harvest. (Copyright 1996 Purdue Research Foundation)
Table 3. Terms used in Tables 1 and 2 in reporting primary growth stages of perennial grasses. Elongation E3 Third node palpable / visible E4 Fourth node palpable / visible Reproductive R0 Boot stage R1 Inflorescence (seed head) emergence / first spikelet visible R2 Spikelets fully emerged / peduncle (portion of stem directly below seed head) not emerged R3 Inflorescence emerged / peduncle fully emerged R4 Anther emergence / anthesis (pollen shedding)
Table 4. List of marketers for the varieties tested. ===================================================== Species / Variety Marketer ----------------------------------------------------- Orchardgrass Condor George W. Hill of Indiana, Inc. DS8 Research Seeds, Inc. Elsie Indiana Seed Co. Haymate Countrymark Cooperative OG 90132 No marketer Jay Parsons Seeds Limited Potomac Public Shawnee Indiana Seed Co. Warrior George W. Hill of Indiana, Inc. Tall Fescue FTF 8873 CISCO Johnstone Public Kentucky 31-I Public Kentucky 31-NI No marketer Maximize Indiana Seed Co. Stargrazer Countrymark Cooperative
3610 Shelby St.
Indianapolis, IN 46227-3359
950 N. Meridian St.
Indianapolis, IN 46204-3909
George W. Hill of Indiana, Inc.
9331 Castlegate Dr.
Indianapolis, IN 46256
Indiana Seed Co.
P.O. Box 1745
Noblesville, IN 46060
Parsons Seeds Limited
P.O. Box 280
Beeton, Canada, LOG IAO
Research Seeds PO Box 1393 St. Joseph, MO 64502 1-800-821-7666 Gary Timm
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Last modified: March 09, 2000