PFI_Logo.GIF (4396 bytes)

Home Forage Issues   Pasture Info  Forage ID Publications Variety Trials Links

 

Performance of Orchardgrass and Tall Fescue in Indiana 1997-2000

Ben R. Carter and Keith D. Johnson*

 Research agronomist and professor of agronomy respectively, Dept. of Agronomy, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-1150.

 

Introduction

This bulletin summarizes the results of 1997 - 2000 yield performance tests of orchardgrass and tall fescue in Indiana.  This information, protected by copyright by the Purdue Research Foundation, is presented under authority granted the Purdue Agricultural Research Programs to conduct performance trials, including interpretation of the data to the public, and does not imply endorsement or recommendation by Purdue University.  Permission is granted to reproduce the tables only in their entirety provided the source is referenced and the data are not rearranged, manipulated, or reinterpreted.  A conspicuous disclaimer which states "endorsement or recommendation by Purdue University is not implied" must accompany any information reproduced.  Additional copies of this and other informative publications are available to Indiana residents from their local Purdue Cooperative Extension Service Office or by writing:

 

  Media Distribution Center
1187 Service Bldg
South University Street
West Lafayette, IN 47907
Phone:  (765) 494-6795
 

 

Experimental Methods 

Participating seed companies selected entries to be tested.  Seed was sent to Purdue University for seeding and evaluation at the Feldun-Purdue Agricultural Center, located near Bedford in Lawrence County (Richard M. Huntrods, superintendent).  Test plots were seeded into a conventionally prepared seedbed using a five-row press-wheel seeder with 6-inch row spacings.

 

Best management practices were administered to all studies.  Optimum pH and fertility were provided and maintained.  Hand weeding and herbicides were used as necessary to accomplish weed control.  A flail-type forage harvester was used to harvest the plots.  Hand samples were utilized for dry matter determination. Maturity stages at first harvest were taken and can be found in Table 1.

 

1997-2000 Growing Seasons

(Refer to Appendix Figure 1)  

As the 1997 season progressed, the southern Indiana soils became very dry.  Temperatures remained unusually cool causing the growing degree-day totals to be two weeks behind normal.  This reduced the growth and lengthened the time between harvests. With timely rains in the fall, the plots entered the winter in good condition. 

Early season rains in 1998 gave a good first harvest.  Extreme dry conditions during the summer slowed re-growth resulting in only one harvest for the year.  With adequate rains and warm temperatures in October, fall growth was excellent. 

The 1999 season started out excellent after the first harvest, but rainfall diminished and later developed into extreme drought.  The water-holding capacity of the soil became a production factor.  Due to the lack of adequate rainfall, only two harvests were taken. 

Precipitation and temperature were favorable for the production of cool-season grasses in 2000.  Three harvests of both grasses were completed in the 2000 season.

 

Presentation and Interpretation of Results

 Yields are reported as dry matter in tons per acre (T/A).  Tables 2 and 3 summarize results of 1997 - 2000 yield trials.

In Tables 2 and 3, varieties are listed in order of total yield to date.  Within a column, varieties differing from each other by less than the respective LSD (least significant difference) were not significantly (probability > 0.05) different.  Yields followed by an asterisk (*) are not significantly different from the highest value in the column. 

 The CV (coefficient of variability) is the ratio of the standard deviation to the grand mean.  It is used as a measure of the precision of the experiment.  Lower CV indicates lower experimental error in the trial. 

 Number of harvests within a year is listed at the bottom of each yield column.

 Table 4 contains a listing of commercially available entries, along with marketers, address, phone number, and contact person from the current listing of retail commercial seed distributors in the Indiana sales area.

 Questions can be directed to:

Keith Johnson

Dept. of Agronomy

Purdue University

1150 Lilly Hall of Life Sciences

West Lafayette, IN 47907-1150

Phone               (765) 494-4800

FAX                 (765) 496-2926

E-Mail  johnsonk@purdue.edu

 

How to Use Performance Information

 Information presented in the bulletin should be useful in selecting cool-season grass varieties for forage production in Indiana.  When selecting an orchardgrass variety, a decision needs to be made if the seeding will be a pure stand or include a legume. We would suggest, based on observations from this study (Table 1), that early maturing varieties such as Potomac maturity type varieties are not desirable when a grass-legume mixture is desired.

 In past years, tall fescue had a poor reputation due to the presence of an endophytic fungus that results in poor animal performance.  Publications about the endophytic fungus and the problems that may be encountered can be obtained from your local Purdue Cooperative Extension Service Office or from the Media Distribution Center.  Releases of tall fescue varieties that are low-endophyte (certified to be less than 5 % infection) have improved animal performance expectations from tall fescue.  Early releases of low-endophyte varieties were criticized for being low in vigor and yield ( e.g. Johnstone).  This study indicates that yield does not have to be sacrificed with the selection of low-endophyte varieties.  Several low-endophyte varieties, and infected Kentucky 31 had similar yield when data for the three years were statistically analyzed.

Table 1: Inflorescence ratings of grasses at first harvest

 

Species/Variety

1998

1999

2000

 

05/29/1998

05/25/1999

05/25/2000

 ORCHARDGRASS

 

 

 

BAR DGL 5USE

R4

R4

R4

Baridana

R4

R3

R4

Benchmark

R4

R4

R4

Bronc

S0

R4

R4

Condor

R4

R4

R4

Crown

R4

R4

R4

DGL N89-A

S0

R5

R5

Hawkeye

R4

R3

R4

KYOGII

R4

R4

R4

Mammoth

S0

R4

R5

Megabite

R4

R4

R4

OG 8703

R4

R4

R4

OG 9001

R4

R4

R4

Potomac

S0

R4

R5

Stampede

R4

R4

R4

Takena

R4

R3

R4

Udder

R4

R4

R4

Warrior

S1

R4

R5

WVPB-OG-89-40

R4

R4

R4

TALL FESCUE

 

 

 

Atlas

S2

R3

S2

BAR FA 689K

S3

R3

S2

BAR FA 6FRD

S2

R3

S2

Desparado

S3

R3

S2

FA BTR1

S0

R3

S0

Kokanee

S0

R3

S0

KY 31-I

S2

R3

S1

KY 31-NI

S1

R3

S1

KYTF2

S3

R3

S2

MM-1-85

S0

R3

S0

Retu

S3

R3

S2

Stag

S0

R3

S0

Stargrazer

S0

R3

S0

TF 8503

S2

R3

S2

 

 

 

 

Terms used in reporting primary growth stages of perennial grasses. 

   Reproductive

      R0  Boot stage

      R1  Inflorescence (seed head)

 emergence / first spikelet visible

      R2  Spikelets fully emerged / peduncle

(portion of stem directly below

seed head) not emerged

      R3  Inflorescence emerged / peduncle

fully emerged

      R4  Anther emergence / anthesis

(pollen shedding)

      R5  Post-anthesis/fertilization

    Seed development and ripening

      S0  Caryopsis visible

      S1  Milk

      S2  Soft dough

      S3  Hard dough

      S4  Hard/physiological maturity

 

 

Table 2.  1997-2000 orchardgrass variety yields at the Feldun-Purdue Agricultural Center, Bedford, IN                    

 

Seeding date: May  1996

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    Dry Matter Yield T/A

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1997

 

1998

 

1999

 

2000

 

98-00

 

% of Check

 

 

 

 

 

Entry

total

 

total

 

total

 

total

 

total

 

97-00

 

 

 

 

 

Bronc

4.74

*

2.64

*

3.55

*

5.96

*

16.89

*

108

 

 

 

 

x

KYOGII

4.55

*

2.45

*

3.42

*

6.08

*

16.51

*

106

 

 

 

 

x

OG 9001

4.58

*

2.29

*

3.42

*

6.20

*

16.50

*

106

 

 

 

 

 

Udder

4.29

 

2.83

*

3.41

*

5.70

 

16.23

*

104

 

 

 

 

 

Megabite

4.17

 

2.54

*

3.43

*

6.04

*

16.19

*

104

 

 

 

 

x

WVPB-OG-89-40

4.33

 

2.65

*

3.37

*

5.77

*

16.12

*

103

 

 

 

 

 

Crown

4.43

 

2.34

*

3.37

*

5.89

*

16.03

*

103

 

 

 

 

 

Benchmark

4.39

 

2.33

*

3.29

*

5.87

*

15.87

*

102

 

 

 

 

x

DGL N89-A

3.85

 

3.03

*

3.30

*

5.66

 

15.84

*

102

 

 

 

 

 

Stampede

4.20

 

2.23

 

3.28

*

6.07

*

15.79

*

101

 

 

 

 

x

OG 8703

4.28

 

2.04

 

3.26

*

6.13

*

15.71

*

101

 

 

 

 

 

Hawkeye

4.26

 

2.36

*

3.26

*

5.74

*

15.61

*

100

 

 

 

 

 

Potomac

4.27

 

2.43

*

3.27

*

5.62

 

15.59

*

100

 

 

 

 

 

Condor

4.24

 

2.17

 

3.17

 

5.97

*

15.55

*

100

 

 

 

 

 

Warrior

4.00

 

2.56

*

3.15

 

5.64

 

15.35

 

98

 

 

 

 

 

Takena

3.99

 

2.49

*

3.18

 

5.47

 

15.14

 

97

 

 

 

 

 

Baridana

4.14

 

2.36

*

3.19

 

5.44

 

15.13

 

97

 

 

 

 

x

BAR DGL 5USE

3.79

 

2.33

*

3.08

 

5.77

*

14.97

 

96

 

 

 

 

 

Mammoth

4.15

 

1.95

 

3.02

 

5.61

 

14.73

 

94

 

 

 

 

 

Grand mean

4.24

 

2.42

 

3.29

 

5.82

 

15.78

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

LSD (5%)

0.30

 

0.77

 

0.31

 

0.50

 

1.33

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

C.V. (%)

5.03

 

22.36

 

6.63

 

5.99

 

5.92

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

No. of Harvests

3

 

1

 

2

 

3

 

9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Entries preceded by "x" are not commercially available in the U.S.  They were experimentals 
at the initiation of the test.   

 

Yields followed by an asterisk (*) are not significantly different from the highest yield in the column.

 

Yield of "Potomac" used to calculate % of check

 

Location:  Bedford, IN

 

Design:  Randomized block, 4 replications, 19 entries

 

Soil Type:  Muren silt loam

 

Plots:  Five rows, 2.5' x 20', (harvested 2.5' x 15')

 

Seeded:  May 1996, with 10 lb. live seed / acre; no harvest in 1996

 

Fertilizer: 100, 50 and 50 lbs. of N/acre applied in March, and after first and second harvests, respectively.

 

                60 lbs of P2O5 and 250 Lbs of K2O/acre applied after first harvest

 

(Copyright 2001 Purdue Research Foundation)

                                   

 

Table 3.  1997-2000 fescue variety yields at the Feldun-Purdue Agricultural Center, Bedford, IN                    

 

Seeding date: May  1996

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

    Dry Matter Yield T/A

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1997

 

1998

 

1999

 

2000

 

97-00

 

% of Check

 

 

 

 

Entry

total

 

total

 

total

 

total

 

total

 

97-00

 

 

 

 

Kentucky 31

5.52

*

2.14

*

3.52

*

6.18

*

17.36

*

100

 

 

 

x

KYTF2

5.60

*

2.16

*

3.19

*

6.32

*

17.27

*

99

 

 

 

x

BAR FA 689K

5.31

*

2.23

*

3.41

*

6.27

*

17.23

*

99

 

 

 

 

Stargrazer

5.55

*

1.99

*

3.31

*

6.08

*

16.92

*

97

 

 

 

 

Atlas

5.47

*

1.93

 

3.39

*

5.95

*

16.73

*

96

 

 

 

 

Desparado

5.42

*

1.98

*

3.23

*

6.01

*

16.65

*

96

 

 

 

x

TF 8503

5.23

*

1.93

 

3.15

*

6.07

*

16.39

*

94

 

 

 

x

Kentucky 31-NI

5.40

*

2.05

*

3.08

 

5.79

*

16.32

*

94

 

 

 

x

BAR FA 6FRD

4.92

 

2.09

*

3.26

*

5.90

*

16.17

*

93

 

 

 

 

Stag

5.19

 

1.68

 

3.16

*

5.72

*

15.75

 

91

 

 

 

 

Kokanee

4.91

 

1.94

*

2.92

 

5.75

*

15.53

 

89

 

 

 

x

FA BTR1

4.89

 

1.96

*

2.72

 

5.60

 

15.17

 

87

 

 

 

 

Retu

4.91

 

1.77

 

2.81

 

5.24

 

14.73

 

85

 

 

 

x

MM-1-85

3.51

 

0.99

 

2.41

 

4.50

 

11.41

 

66

 

 

 

 

Grand mean

5.13

 

1.92

 

3.11

 

5.81

 

15.97

 

 

 

 

 

 

LSD (5%)

0.39

 

0.30

 

0.43

 

0.64

 

1.35

 

 

 

 

 

 

C.V. (%)

5.30

 

10.70

 

9.48

 

7.60

 

5.85

 

 

 

 

 

 

No. of Harvests

3

 

1

 

2

 

3

 

9

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Entries preceded by "x" are not commercially available in the U.S.  They were experimentals

 

at the initiation of the test.   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yields followed by an asterisk (*) are not significantly different from the highest yield in the column.

 

Yield of "Kentucky 31" used to calculate % of check

 

Location:  Bedford, IN

 

Design:  Randomized block, 4 replications, 14 entries

 

Soil Type:  Muren silt loam

 

Plots:  Five rows, 2.5' x 20', (harvested 2.5' x 15')

 

Seeded:  May  1996, with 15 lb. live seed / acre

 

Fertilizer: 100, 50 and 50 lbs.of N/acre applied in March, and after first and second harvests, respectively.

 

                60 lbs of P2O5 and 250 Lbs of K2O/acre applied after first harvest

 

(Copyright 2001 Purdue Research Foundation)

 

Table 4.  List of varieties and marketers for the varieties offered for sale commercially in the U.S.
at the time of test completion.

 

               
Orchardgrass Marketer

Baridana                               

2 & 8

Benchmark                 

4

Bronc                                         

7

Condor                                       

6

Crown                                        

5

Hawkeye                                  

10

Mammoth                                  

5

Megabite                                  

10

Potomac                                     

3

Stampede                                   

3

Takena                                       

1

Udder                                       

10

Warrior                                      

3

                  

Tall Fescue  Marketers

Atlas                                          

3

Desparado                     

7

KY 31                        

3

Stag                                    

3

Stargrazer                         

4

 

Marketers

1.      AMPAC Seed Company
403 Wooster Road
Winona Lake, IN  46590
219-268-9549
Dave Robison

2.      Barenburg USA, INC.
Byron Seed Supply
Rt. 1 Box 92
Marshall, IN 47859
800-801-3596
Samuel Fisher

3.      CISCO
3610 Shelby St.
Indianapolis, IN  46227-3359
317-788-7013
David Pearl

4.      Croplan Genetics
950 N. Meridian St.
Indianapolis, IN  46204-3909
317-685-3244
 

5.      Donley Seed Company
709E 4th Street
New Albany, IN 47150
812-945-0229
Charlie Leppert
 

6.      DLF-Jenks
3435 E 500 S
Lafayette, IN 47909
765-471-8973
Bret Winsett

7.      Grassland Central
16690 Greystone Lane
Jordan, MN 55352
952-492-2990

8.      GSS & Greiwe Seeds
2300 N CR 250 W
Greensburg 47240
888-635-8583
Clay Nuhring

9.      Lewis Seed Company Inc.
130 North Spring
Louisville, KY 40206
502-587-1241
Kenneth Moore

10.    Tenbarge Seed Company, Inc.
P.O. Box 187
Haubstadt,IN 47639
812-768-6157
Robert Will

 

 

Appendix Figure 1. 1997-2000 total monthly precipitation (inches) for Bedford , IN

  

  

  

 

Send mail to Jerry Schmierer Email: jlschmierer@ucdavis.edu with questions or comments about this web site.
Copyright 1997 Purdue University Agronomy Extension
Last modified: January 03, 2002