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August 2017
URL: http://www.kingcorn.org/news/timeless/KernelSet.html

Kernel Set Scuttlebutt

R.L. (Bob) Nielsen
Agronomy Dept., Purdue Univ.
West Lafayette, IN 47907-2054
Email address: rnielsen at purdue.edu
Twitter: @PurdueCornGuy


"Scuttlebutt": The cask of drinking water on ships was called a scuttlebutt and since sailors exchanged gossip when they gathered at the scuttlebutt for a drink of water, scuttlebutt became U.S. Navy slang for gossip or rumors. A butt was a wooden cask, which held water or other liquids; to scuttle is to drill a hole, as for tapping a cask.

Nautical Terms and Phrases, NAVAL HISTORICAL CENTER, Washington DC 20374-5060.
Online at www.ussbrainedd630.com/terms.htm [URL accessed Aug 2017].

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Poor kernel set

Poor kernel set

he post-pollination scuttlebutt overheard in coffee shops throughout Indiana during late summer often revolves around the potential for severe stress that might reduce kernel set or kernel size in neighborhood cornfields. Growers' interest in this topic obviously lies with the fact that the number of kernels per ear is a rather important component of total grain yield per acre for corn.

Poor kernel set, meaning an unacceptably low kernel number per ear, is not surprising in fields that are obviously severely stressed by drought, but can also occur in fields that otherwise appear to be in good shape. Good or poor kernel set is determined from pollination through the early stages of kernel development; typically 2 to 3 weeks after pollination is complete.

Problems with kernel set stem from ineffective pollination, ineffective fertilization of the ovaries, kernel abortion, or all three. Distinguishing the symptoms is easy. Determining the exact cause of the problem is sometimes difficult.

Potential Yield Loss

The potential loss in grain yield caused by lower kernel numbers per ear can be estimated using the formula of the so-called Yield Component Method first described by the Univ. of Illinois many years ago (Nafziger, 2017; Nielsen, 2016b). For example, the loss of only 1 kernel per row for a hybrid with 16-row ears and a stand count of 30,000 ears per acre would equal a potential yield loss of approximately 5 bushels per acre (1 [kernel] x 16 [rows] x 30 [thousand ears per acre] divided by 90 [thousand kernels per bushel]).

Ineffective Pollination / Fertilization

Poor kernel set may be caused by ineffective pollination (the transfer of pollen from the tassel to the silks) and/or the subsequent failure of the pollen's male gametes to fertilize the female gametes of the ovules on the cob. Ineffective pollination is characterized by an absence of noticeable kernel development. In other words, all you see is cob tissue. Pollination problems may be due to several stress factors, sometimes working together to influence kernel set.

Severe drought stress, aggravated by excessive heat, can delay silk emergence to the extent that pollen shed is complete or nearly complete by the time the silks finally emerge from the husk. Without a pollen source, ovule fertilization cannot occur.

Silk clipping by CRW beetles

Poor tip fill on unusually long ear

Combination of kernel abortion & lack of pollination

Persistent severe silk clipping by insects such as the corn rootworm beetle or Japanese beetle throughout the active pollen shed period can also limit the success of pollination. The simultaneous effects of severe drought stress on silk emergence can easily amplify the consequences of severe silk clipping.

Severe drought stress coupled with excessive heat and low humidity can desiccate emerged silks to the point that they are no longer receptive to pollen grain germination. I suspect this is low on the list of possible stressors for Indiana most years (because of our typically high humidity levels), but may play a role in some fields once in a while. Similarly, I doubt that pollen viability is usually an issue for Indiana cornfields because temperatures in the low 90's are usually not great enough to kill pollen.

Consecutive days of persistent rainfall or showers that keep tassels wet for many hours per day over several days can delay or interfere with anther exsertion and pollen shed. Such a weather period does not typically occur in Indiana, but the remnants of Hurricane Dennis that visited many parts of Indiana in early July of 2005 may have influenced kernel set in some fields that were trying to pollinate during that week as a result of the many days of showery humid weather (coupled with the excessive cloudiness and its negative effect on photosynthesis).

Exceptionally long potential ears resulting from good weather during ear size determination sometimes fail to pollinate the final kernels near the tip of the cob. Remember, butt silks emerge first and tip silks emerge last. With oversized ears, sometimes tip silks emerge after all the pollen has been shed.

An increasingly common hybrid trait in recent years is an aggressive silking habit that results in silks emerging from the husk leaves several days prior to the availability of pollen from the tassels. The trait is associated with drought tolerance in the sense that silk emergence delays are less likely under severe drought stress and, thus, silk/pollen synchrony is better retained. However, favorable weather during silk elongation tends to favor unusually early silk appearance that can result in silk aging / deterioration prior to the availability of pollen. The typical kernel set pattern associated with this situation is blank cob tissue near the basal end of the cobs.

Kernel Abortion

Poor kernel set can also be a reflection of kernel abortion following successful fertilization of the ovules on the cob. In contrast to ineffective pollination or fertilization, initial kernel development obviously precedes kernel abortion, so the symptoms are usually shriveled remnants of kernels that may be whitish- or yellowish-translucent.

Kernel abortion results from severe stresses that greatly reduce the overall photosynthetic output of the plant during the first several weeks after the end of pollination as the kernels develop through the blister (R2) and milk (R3) stages of development. The risk of kernel abortion decreases significantly after the R3 stage of kernel development. Obvious photosynthetic stressors include severe drought & heat stress, consecutive days of excessively cloudy weather and significant loss of photosynthetically active leaf area (e.g., hail damage, leaf diseases, insect damage, nutrient deficiency).

Warm nights during pollination and early grain fill may indirectly affect survival of developing kernels. Research suggests that the increased rate of kernel development due to warmer temperatures lowers the available amount of photosynthate per unit of thermal time; which then becomes a stressor to kernel development particularly at the tip of the ear, leading to kernel abortion (Cantarero et al., 1999).

Final Food for Thought

A plethora (meaning a whole lot) of blank cob tips can quickly ruin the joy of walking a cornfield in the middle of August. Before getting too bent out of shape over the missing kernels, remember to count the number of harvestable kernels on those ears. Sometimes, ears exhibit 1 to 2 inches of blank tips; yet still contain 16 rows by 30 to 35 harvestable kernels per row. Those are perfectly acceptable ear sizes in a year where dry weather has been a concern.

Related References

Cantarero, M.G., A.G. Cirilo, and F.H. Andrade. 1999. Night temperature at silking affects kernel set in maize. Crop Sci 39:703-710.

Nafziger, Emerson. 2017. Corn, in the Illinois Agronomy Handbook. http://extension.cropsciences.illinois.edu/handbook/ [URL accessed Aug 2017].

Nielsen, R.L. (Bob). 2011. The "Zipper" Pattern of Poor Kernel Set in Corn. Corny News Network, Purdue Univ. http://www.kingcorn.org/news/timeless/Zipper.html [URL accessed Aug 2017].

Nielsen, R.L. (Bob). 2013. Effects of Stress During Grain Filling in Corn. Corny News Network, Purdue Univ. http://www.kingcorn.org/news/timeless/GrainFillStress.html [URL accessed Aug 2013].

Nielsen, R.L. (Bob). 2016a. A Fast & Accurate "Pregnancy" Test for Corn. Corny News Network, Purdue Univ. http://www.kingcorn.org/news/timeless/EarShake.html [URL accessed Aug 2017].

Nielsen, R.L. (Bob). 2016b. Estimating Corn Grain Yield Prior to Harvest. Corny News Network, Purdue Univ. http://www.kingcorn.org/news/timeless/YldEstMethod.html [URL accessed Aug 2017].

Nielsen, R.L. (Bob). 2016c. Grain Fill Stages in Corn. Corny News Network, Purdue Univ. http://www.kingcorn.org/news/timeless/GrainFill.html [URL accessed Aug 2017].

Nielsen, R.L. (Bob). 2016e. Silk Emergence. Corny News Network, Purdue Univ. Available http://www.kingcorn.org/news/timeless/Silks.html [URL accessed Aug 2017].

Nielsen, R.L. (Bob). 2016e. Tassel Emergence & Pollen Shed. Corny News Network, Purdue Univ. http://www.kingcorn.org/news/timeless/Tassels.html [URL accessed Aug 2017].