Crop Damage by Excessive Rain, Ponding, and Floods

xcessive rainfall results in saturated soils, ponding of water on the soil surface, or outright flooding of major agronomic crops somewhere in the U.S. Midwest every year. Individual growers and their consultants, however, may experience such crop damage only a few times in their careers and so often have little experience in assessing crop recovery or identifying economically viable crop management decisions in the aftermath of the damage.

This Web site offers a compilation of flood-related crop management information written by crop experts from throughout the U.S. Corn Belt. The articles are organized by subject area. You can either scroll down the page to locate an area of interest or click on the list below.

Because this page may be updated frequently in years when flooding is an issue, please "refresh" or "reload" your Web browser to force an update to the most current version.

When in doubt about the applicability of the information to your geographic area of the country, please contact the author(s) of the articles or consult with your own Univ Extension specialists.

URL verifiedThese links were last verified June 2015. The dates in parentheses following the publication titles refer to the year of publication. Please send comments or dead link alerts to R.L. (Bob) Nielsen (rnielsen at purdue.edu).


Assessing crop damage

Assessing Flood Damage to Soybean (2014)
Shawn Conley, Univ of Wisconsin
Assessing Hail Injury in Corn (2008)
Roger Elmore & Lori Abendroth, Iowa State Univ.
Considerations for Flooded Corn and Soybean (2014)
Jeff Coulter, Seth Naeve, Dean Malvick, and Fabian Fernandez; Univ. of Minnesota
Corn and Soybean Survival in Saturated and Flooded Soils (2015)
Roger Elmore and Nathan Mueller, Univ of Nebraska
Crop Plant Response to Flooding (2015)
Bill Wiebold, Univ of Missouri
Death by Drowning (2010)
Bob Nielsen, Purdue Univ
Early-Season Flooding and Soybean Survival (2014)
Roger Elmore and Jim Specht, Univ of Nebraska
Effect of Flooding on Emerged Soybeans (2008)
Palle Pedersen, Iowa State Univ.
Effects of Flooding or Ponding on Young Corn (2015)
Bob Nielsen, Purdue Univ.
Evaluating Flood Damage in Corn (2007)
Chad Lee, James Herbek, Greg Schwab, and Lloyd Murdock; Univ. of Kentucky
Flood Damage to Corn Near Pollination or Beyond (2014)
Bob Nielsen, Purdue Univ.
Flood effects on Minnesota soybeans (2010)
Seth Naeve, Univ. of Minnesota
Flooded Corn and Saturated Soils (2008)
Roger Elmore & Lori Abendroth, Iowa State Univ.
Flooded Soybeans Near Harvest (2006)
Chad Lee & Jim Herbek, Univ of Kentucky
Flooding Effects on Corn (2014)
Joe Lauer, Univ of Wisconsin
Impact of Ponding and Saturated Soils on Corn (2013)
Peter Thomison, Ohio State Univ.
Late Season Flood Damage to Corn: Management Considerations (2007)
Peter Thomison, Pierce Paul, and Dennis Mills; Ohio State Univ.
Managing corn and soybean fields submerged by recent heavy rains (2006)
Kurt Thelen, Michigan State Univ.
Mid-Season Flooding: Impact on Corn Ear Fill (2010)
Roger Elmore and Lori Abendroth, Iowa State Univ
Recovery From Hail Damage to Young Corn (2015)
Bob Nielsen, Purdue Univ.

Crop insurance

Crop Insurance Impacts from Recent Flooding (2010)
Paul Burgener, Univ. of Nebraska
Corn: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio (2014).
A Risk Management Agency Fact Sheet for the 2015 Crop Year, USDA-RMA
Crop Insurance May Help Flooded and Wet Corn and Soybean Acres (2008)
William Edwards, Iowa State Univ.
Economic Impact of Delayed and Prevented Planting (2008)
William Edwards, Iowa State Univ.
Late and Prevented Planting Coverage and Replant Provisions (2013)
Paul Mitchell, Univ of Wisconsin
Late Planting Provisions for Crop Insurance (2015)
Monte Vandeveer, Univ of Nebraska
Soybeans: Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, and Ohio (2014).
A Risk Management Agency Fact Sheet for the 2015 Crop Year, USDA-RMA
USDA-Risk Management Agency Home Page (2015)
USDA-RMA

Disease management

Crazy Top in Corn (2011)
Laura Sweets, Univ. of Missouri
Disease Management Following Flooding Rains—What to Look For (2015)
Anne Dorrance, Ohio State Univ.
Disease Management in a Flooding Season (2008)
XB Yang, Iowa State Univ.
Recent Weather May Promote Unusual Disease Problems in Corn (2008)
Greg Shaner, Purdue Univ.
Flooding Increases the Risk of Certain Diseases in Corn (2008)
Alison Robertson, Iowa State Univ.
Fungicide Use in Corn After Hail Events and Prior to Tasseling (2014)
Tamra Jackson-Ziems, Univ of Nebraska
Pummeled Corn Vulnerable to Disease Development (2010)
Tamra Jackson, Univ of Nebraska
Seed Decay and Seedling Blights of Corn (2015)
Laura Sweets, Univ of Missouri
Soybean Replanting and Fungicide Treatments (2008)
XB Yang, Iowa State Univ.
Soybean Seedling Blights - Video (2015)
Kiersten Wise and John Obermeyer, Purdue Univ.

Forage management

Forage and Cover Crop Considerations for Delayed Planting and Flooded Sites (2008)
Stephen K. Barnhart, Iowa State Univ.
Hayfield Lodging – Management Concerns and Guidelines (2008)
Stephen K. Barnhart and Mark Hanna, Iowa State Univ.
Rainfall has Affected Hay and Hay-Crop Silage Harvest (2008)
Stephen K. Barnhart, Iowa State Univ.
Reseeding Flood and Weather-Damaged Forage Crops in Late Summer (2008)
Stephen Barnhart, Iowa State Univ
Summer Flooding of Hay Fields and Pastures (2008)
Stephen K. Barnhart, Iowa State Univ.

Harvest issues

Fall Flooding Damage to Soybean (2011)
Pioneer Hi-Bred Int'l
Flood or Moisture Damage to Corn (2011)
Ron Heiniger, North Carolina St. Univ
Flooded Soybeans Near Harvest (2006)
Chad Lee, Jim Herbek, Don Hershman, & Sam McNeil; Univ of Kentucky
Harvesting Flood-damaged Corn for Grain or Silage (2006)
Chad Lee & Jim Herbek, Univ of Kentucky
Managing Flood-Damaged Crops (2011)
Sid Bosworth & Dennis Kauppila, Univ of Vermont
Managing Flood-damaged Crops (2011)
Penn St. Crop Management Group, Penn. St. Univ.
Storing Flood-damaged Soybean and Corn (2006)
Sam McNeil, Univ of Kentucky

Insect management

A Silver Lining: Hatching Rootworm Larvae May Be Drowning (2015)
Christian Krupke and John Obermeyer, Purdue Univ.
Replanting Corn and Rootworm Control Restrictions (2008)
John Obermeyer and Larry Bledsoe, Purdue Univ.
Should a Rootworm Soil Insecticide Be Used on Late Planted or Replanted Corn? (2008)
John Obermeyer and Larry Bledsoe, Purdue Univ.
Standing Water, Corn Rootworm Survival, and Insecticide Performance (2008)
Mike Gray, Univ. of Illinois
Western Corn Rootworm and Flooded Fields - Video (2013)
Michael Gray, Univ of Illinois

Late planting & replanting concerns

Corn Replanting Considerations (2015)
Roger Elmore, Nathan Mueller, and Laura Thompson; Univ of Nebraska
Estimating Yield and Dollar Returns From Corn Replanting (2003)
Bob Nielsen, Purdue Univ.
Grain Sorghum Considerations for Late Planting in Southern Indiana (2008)
Bob Nielsen, Purdue Univ.
Heavy Rains and Flooding Equal Delayed Soybean Planting (2008)
Ellsworth Christmas, Purdue Univ.
How Late Can Soybeans be Planted? (2008)
Palle Pedersen, Iowa State Univ.
Is It Time to Switch Soybean Maturity Group Varieties? (2008)
Palle Pedersen, Iowa State Univ.
Make the Most from Late Planted Soybean (2015)
Bill Wiebold, Univ of Missouri
Planting Delays and Switching to Soybeans: A New FAST Spreadsheet (2011)
Gary Schnitkey and Ryan Batts, Univ of Illinois
RLN's editorial note: This handy Excel spreadsheet offers some assistance in making an economic decision whether to switch from corn to soybean with delayed planting. However, recognize that your choice of yield, grain price, and production costs are critically important to whether the predicted economic results will be close to accurate. My advice: Do not simply use the spreadsheet's default values, but thoughtfully input your own values. Also, recognize you are limited to selecting geographic areas only within Illinois, so non-Illini farmers should exercise caution with the use of this tool.
Replant Considerations for Flooded Corn (2008)
Bob Nielsen, Purdue Univ.
Replanting To Forages after Storm Damage (2011)
Bruce Anderson, Univ. of Nebraska
Soybean Replant Decisions from Hail Damage and Flooded Fields (2008)
Palle Pedersen, Iowa State Univ.
The Corn Growers Field Guide for Evaluating Crop Damage and Replant Options
Dale Hicks and Seth Naeve, Univ. of Minnesota
The Planting Date Conundrum for Corn (2015)
Bob Nielsen, Purdue Univ.
The Soybean Growers Field Guide For Evaluating Crop Damage And Replant Options
Dale Hicks and Seth Naeve, Univ. of Minnesota
Tillage Considerations for Delayed Planting of Corn in a Wet Spring (2011)
Tony Vyn, Purdue Univ.
Tillage: Think Seedbed and Rooting Zone (2011)
Emerson Nafziger, Univ. of Illinois
Tillage System Choices for June Planting or Replanting after Flooding (2008)
Tony Vyn, Purdue Univ.
What to Expect from Ultra Late Planted Soybean (2015)
Bill Wiebold, Univ. of Missouri

Miscellaneous

Heavy Rains Exclude Oxygen Needed for Seedling Health from Soils (2013)
Bill Wiebold, Univ of Missouri
Impact of Flooding on Organic Food and Fields
Jim Riddle, Univ. of Minnesota
Managing Flooded Grain Bins (2013)
eXtension.org
Salvaging Flood-damaged Agricultural Buildings (2013)
eXtension.org
Livestock and Farm Buildings After a Flood (2008)
Jay Harmon, Iowa State Univ.
Management Considerations for Post Flooding Soils (2011)
Mahdi Al-Kaisi, Iowa State Univ.
Managing Flooded Grain Bins (2007)
Bill Wilcke, Univ. of Minnesota
Managing Manure Storage Structures During Wet Weather (2008)
Robert Burns, Iowa State Univ.

Nitrogen loss

Applying Additional Nitrogen After Wet Conditions (2010)
John Sawyer, Iowa State Univ
Assessing Available Nitrogen from Fall- and Spring-Applied Nitrogen Applications (2015)
Jim Camberato & Bob Nielsen, Purdue Univ.
Estimating Nitrogen Losses from Wet Soils (2011)
Larry Murdock, Univ Kentucky
Estimating Nitrogen Losses (2010)
John Sawyer, Iowa State Univ.
In-Season Testing for Corn N Management (2015)
Doug Beegle, Penn. State Univ.
"Late" Applications of Nitrogen to Corn (2010)
Peter Thomison & Robert Mullen, Ohio State Univ.
Late Season Nitrogen Application for Corn (2014)
Jim Camberato, Purdue Univ.
Measuring the Nitrogen Status (2008)
John Sawyer, Iowa State Univ.
Nitrogen Loss Concerns with Heavy Rains (2015)
Doug Beegle, Penn. State Univ.
Nitrogen Loss in Wet and Wetter Fields (2008)
Jim Camberato, Brad Joern, & Bob Nielsen; Purdue Univ.
Nitrogen Loss – How Does it Happen? (2008)
John Sawyer, Iowa State Univ.
Potential for Nitrogen Loss Following Heavy Rainfalls (2014)
Carrie Laboski, Univ. of Wisconsin
Potential N Loss after Heavy Rains (2015)
Brian Krienke, Univ. of Nebraska
Rainfall and Nitrogen Loss from Anhydrous Ammonia, Should You Be Concerned? (2011)
Robert Mullen & Ed Lentz, Ohio State Univ.
Supplemental Nitrogen Worksheet for Corn (1992)
Univ. of Minnesota
Unknown Soil N Losses: What To Do? (2010)
Univ of Nebraska
Yellow Corn, Wet Soils and N Loss (2008)
John Sawyer, Iowa State Univ.

Weed management

Big Corn and Big Weeds (2010)
Bill Johnson and Glenn Nice, Purdue Univ
Considerations for Postemergence Herbicide Applications in Corn (2008)
Aaron Hager, Univ. of Illinois
Considerations for Replanting Soybean in Drowned Out Corn Fields (2008)
Bill Johnson and Glenn Nice, Purdue Univ.
Corn Size Restriction for POST Herbicides (2008)
Mike Owen and Bob Hartzler, Iowa State Univ.
Delayed Postemergence Herbicide Applications (2015)
Travis Legleiter and Bill Johnson, Purdue Univ.
Early postemergence considerations for corn (2008)
Mark Loux, Ohio State Univ.
Herbicide Issues in Flood Damaged Corn Fields (2010)
Jim Martin & J.D. Green, Univ. of Kentucky
Methods to Control Volunteer Roundup Ready or Glyphosate- Tolerant Corn in a Corn Replant Situation (2010)
Bill Johnson and Glenn Nice, Purdue Univ.
Replant Options in Corn Fields (2008)
Mike Owen, Iowa State Univ.
Replanting Corn – How Do You Get Rid of the Existing Stand? (2008)
Mike Owen, Iowa State Univ.
Wet Conditions Create Weed Management Challenges in Corn (2011)
Jim Martin & J.D. Green, Univ. of Kentucky
Wet Weather and Weed Management (2015)
Mark Loux, Ohio State Univ.